Butterflies of Lebanon

Attribution: Anton Croos (Wikipedia Creative Commons)

 

Because of its unique location between Asia, Africa, and Europe, Lebanon has a diverse butterfly fauna. There are at least 165 species of butterflies, a number much higher than that of nearly every other country in the Middle East and North Africa, and many countries in Europe. Forty-five of these species are endemics and near-endemics, and 20 are considered threatened or near threatened. Many are isolated alpine species living at high altitudes and mountaintops, a result of Lebanon’s long history of glacial refugia. And an even larger number are eremics, found in drier parts of the country, which is increasing due to global warming and desertification. Lebanon, with its location on the Mediterranean, is also a source, transit stop, and destination of butterfly migration.

Please click on each butterfly species to read its individual description and view the images and videos. These field tools will help you identify butterflies in the wild. You want to know more? Please buy the books and visit the butterfly garden.

 

 

PAPILIONIDAE

 

COMMON SWALLOWTAIL Papilio machaon syriacus

 

TIGER SWALLOWTAIL Papilio alexanor maccabaeus

 

PEAR-TREE SWALLOWTAIL Iphiclides podalirius virgatus

 

EASTERN FESTOON Allancastria cerisyi speciosa

 

LEBANESE FESTOON Allancastria deyrollei eisneri

 

FALSE APOLLO Archon apollinus bellargus

 

LITTLE FALSE APOLLO Archon apollinaris

 

CLOUDED APOLLO Parnassius mnemosyne

 

PIERIDAE

 

AFRICAN MIGRANT Catopsilia florella florella

 

BRIMSTONE Gonepteryx rhamni

 

POWDERED BRIMSTONE Gonepteryx farinosa farinosa

 

CLEOPATRA Gonepteryx cleopatra taurica

 

BROAD-BORDERED GRASS YELLOW Eurema brigitta brigitta

 

CAPER WHITE Belenois aurota aurota

 

SALMON CAPER Colotis fausta fausta

 

BLACK-VEINED WHITE Aporia crataegi augustior

 

WOOD WHITE Leptidea sinapis

 

EASTERN WOOD WHITE Leptidea duponcheli xanthochroa

 

ORANGE-TIP Anthocharis cardamines phoenissa

 

EASTERN ORANGE-TIP Anthocharis damone syra

 

GREENISH BLACK-TIP Euchloe charlonia charlonia

 

EASTERN GREENISH BLACK-TIP Euchloe penia penia

 

DAPPLED WHITE Euchloe ausonia

 

GREEN-STRIPED WHITE Euchloe belemia belemia

 

BATH WHITE Pontia daplidice

 

PEAK WHITE Pontia callidice chrysidice

 

LARGE WHITE Pieris brasssicae catoleuca

 

SMALL WHITE Pieris rapae leucosoma

 

GREEN-VEINED WHITE Pieris napi dubiosa

 

MOUNTAIN SMALL WHITE Pieris ergane detersa

 

FALSE SMALL WHITE Pieris pseudorapae pseudorapae

 

CLOUDED YELLOW Colias croceus croceus

 

EASTERN CLOUDED YELLOW Colias erate erate

 

LEBANON CLOUDED YELLOW Colias aurorina libanotica

 

LYCAENIDAE

 

BLUE-SPOT HAIRSTREAK Satyrium spini melantho

 

ILEX HAIRSTREAK Satyrium ilicis bischoffi

 

LEBANESE HAIRSTREAK Satyrium myrtale myrtale

 

ORANGE-BANDED HAIRSTREAK Satyrium ledereri nazeri

 

GERHARD’S BLACK HAIRSTREAK Satyrium abdominalis persica

 

GUICHARD’S HAIRSTREAK Satyrium guichardi

 

GREEN HAIRSTREAK Callophrys rubi

 

PURPLE HAIRSTREAK Quercusia quercus quercus

 

POMEGRANATE HAIRSTREAK Deudorix livia livia

 

LONG-TAILED BLUE Lampides boeticus boeticus

 

LANG’S SHORT-TAILED BLUE Leptotes pirithous pirithous

 

LITTLE TIGER BLUE Tarucus balkanicus balkanicus

 

MEDITERRANEAN TIGER BLUE Tarucus rosaceus rosaceus

 

SMALL MAUVE BLUE Zizeeria karsandra karsandra

 

DARK GRASS BLUE Zizeeria knysna

 

AFRICAN BABUL BLUE Azanus jesous gamra

 

DESERT BABUL BLUE Azanus ubaldus

 

HOLLY BLUE Celastrina argiolus paraleuca

 

GREEN-UNDERSIDE BLUE Glaucopsyche alexis aeruginosa

 

IOLAS BLUE Iolana iolas

 

CHEQUERED BLUE Pseudophilotes vicrama astabene

 

ODD-SPOT BLUE Turanana endymion endymion

 

NORTHERN BLUE Plebejus idas selda

 

BALDUR BLUE Plebejus baldur

 

SILVER-STUDDED BLUE Plebejus argus bellus

 

LARGE JEWEL BLUE Plebejus loewii

 

ZEPHYR BLUE Plebejus pylaon sephirus

 

NICHOLL’S ZEPHYR BLUE Plebejus nichollae nichollae

 

EASTERN BROWN ARGUS Plebejus carmon euaemon

 

GERANIUM ARGUS Eumedonia eumedon mylitta

 

BROWN ARGUS Aricia agestis

 

STEELY ARGUS Aricia crassipuncta

 

LEBANESE BLUE Aricia bassoni bassoni

 

STARRY-BACKED BLUE Aricia dorsumstellae

 

TAURUS BLUE Aricia isaurica

 

COMMON BLUE Polyommatus icarus

 

JUNO BLUE Polyommatus juno juno

 

AMANDA’S BLUE Polyommatus amandus brenda

 

ANTHEA BLUE Polyommatus anthea

 

CHAPMAN’S BLUE Polyommatus thersites gravesi

 

MAZARINE BLUE Polyommatus semiargus semiargus

 

EASTERN MAZARINE BLUE Polyommatus bellis antiochena

 

LARSEN’S BLUE Polyommatus larseni larseni

 

LEBANESE ADONIS BLUE Polyommatus syriacus syriacus

 

CEDAR MOUNTAIN BLUE Polyommatus ellisoni ellisoni

 

BABY BLUE Polyommatus isauricoides isauricoides

 

POSEIDON BLUE Polyommatus poseidon mesopotamica

 

DEEB’S BLUE Polyommatus deebi deebi

 

CORONA BLUE Polyommatus corona

 

ZERNY’S ANOMALOUS BLUE Polyommatus alcestis alcestis

 

MELEAGER’S BLUE Polyommatus daphnis

 

SMALL DESERT BLUE Chilades galba galba

 

GRASS JEWEL Chilades trochylus trochylus

 

LEOPARD Cigaritis acamas acamas

 

LESSER LEOPARD Cigaritis cilissa

 

TURKISH VERNAL COPPER Tomares nogelii aurantiaca

 

SYRIAN VERNAL COPPER Tomares nesimachus nesimachus

 

SOOTY COPPER Lycaena tityrus

 

SMALL COPPER Lycaena phlaeas timeus

 

GOLDEN COPPER Lycaena ochimus ochimus

 

FIERY COPPER Lycaena thetis zahaltensis

 

LESSER FIERY COPPER Lycaena thersamon omphale

 

KURDISTAN COPPER Lycaena kurdistanica

 

LESSER PURPLE-SHOT COPPER Lycaena asabinus asabinus

 

NYMPHALIDAE

 

PLAIN TIGER Danaus chrysippus chrysippus

 

FALSE PLAIN TIGER Hypolimnas misippus misippus

 

SOUTHERN WHITE ADMIRAL Limenitis reducta

 

YELLOW PANSY Junonia hierta cebrene

 

TWO-TAILED PASHA Charaxes jasius jasius

 

LARGE TORTOISESHELL Nymphalis polychloros polychloros

 

SMALL TORTOISESHELL Aglais urticae turcica

 

RED ADMIRAL Vanessa atalanta atalanta

 

PAINTED LADY Vanessa cardui cardui

 

COMMA Polygonia c-album c-album

 

SOUTHERN COMMA Polygonia egea egea

 

CARDINAL Argynnis pandora pandora

 

NIOBE FRITILLARY Argynnis niobe

 

QUEEN OF SPAIN FRITILLARY Issoria lathonia lathonia

 

KNAPWEED FRITILLARY Melitaea phoebe

 

PUNIC FRITILLARY Melitaea punica telona

 

LEDERER’S FRITILLARY Melitaea collina collina

 

TOADFLAX FRITILLARY Melitaea didyma

 

DESERT FRITILLARY Melitaea deserticola deserticola

 

GLANVILLE FRITILLARY Melitaea cinxia clarissa

 

MULLEIN FRITILLARY Melitaea trivia nana

 

PERSIAN FRITILLARY Melitaea persea montium

 

LEVANTINE MARBLED WHITE Melanargia titea

 

ROCK GRAYLING Hipparchia alcyone alcyone

 

EASTERN ROCK GRAYLING Hipparchia syriaca syriaca

 

FREYER’S GRAYLING Hipparchia fatua sichaea

 

WHITE-BORDERED BLACK Hipparchia parisatis

 

SINAI GRAYLING Hipparchia pisidice pisidice

 

GREAT STEPPE GRAYLING Chazara persephone transiens

 

KLUG’S TAWNY ROCK BROWN Pseudochazara pelopea pelopea

 

TURANIAN ROCK BROWN Pseudochazara thelephassa thelephassa

 

GREAT SOOTY SATYR Satyrus ferula makmal

 

AFRICAN RINGLET Ypthima asterope asterope

 

DUSKY MEADOW BROWN Hyponephele lycaon libanotica

 

ORIENTAL MEADOW BROWN Hyponephele lupina

 

EASTERN MEADOW BROWN Maniola telmessia telmessia

 

SMALL HEATH Coenonympha pamphilus neolyllus

 

WALL BROWN Lasiommata megera

 

LARGE WALL BROWN Lasiommata maera orientalis

 

LATTICE BROWN Kirinia roxelana roxelana

 

SPECKLED WOOD Pararge aegeria aegeria

 

HESPERIIDAE

 

HOLLYHOCK SKIPPER Carcharodus alceae alceae

 

NORTH AFRICAN SKIPPER Carcharodus stauderi ambigua

 

ORIENTAL SKIPPER Carcharodus orientalis maccabaeus

 

INKY SKIPPER Erynnis marloyi marloyi

 

LARGE GRIZZLED SKIPPER Muschampia proto

 

TESSELLATED SKIPPER Muschampia tessellum cribrelloides

 

ANATOLIAN SKIPPER Muschampia proteides proteides

 

SYRIAN SKIPPER Muschampia nomas nomas

 

POGGE’S SKIPPER Muschampia poggei poggei

 

OBERTHÜR’S GRIZZLED SKIPPER Pyrgus armoricanus philonides

 

OLIVE SKIPPER Pyrgus serratulae alveoides

 

LEVANTINE GRIZZLED SKIPPER Pyrgus melotis melotis

 

ORBIFEROUS SKIPPER Spialia orbifer hilaris

 

KIKI’S SKIPPER Spialia phlomidis

 

OSTHELDER’S SKIPPER Spialia osthelderi osthelderi

 

ZELLER’S SKIPPER Borbo borbonica zelleri

 

PIGMY SKIPPER Gegenes pumilio pumilio

 

PEATY SKIPPER Gegenes nostrodamus nostrodamus

 

SILVER-SPOTTED SKIPPER Hesperia comma pallida

 

SMALL SKIPPER Thymelicus sylvestris syriacus

 

EUROPEAN SKIPPER Thymelicus lineola melissus

 

LULWORTH SKIPPER Thymelicus acteon phoenix

 

LEVANTINE SKIPPER Thymelicus hyrax hyrax

 

MILLET SKIPPER Pelopidas thrax thrax

 

LARGE SKIPPER Ochlodes sylvanus faunus

 

 

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